α. 15–16 enargie, 15–16 energye, 15–17 energie, 15– energy, 16 enargy.
β. 15 energeia, 15–16 (18– chiefly in sense ) energia. (Show Less)
Frequency (in current use):
Origin: Of multiple origins. Partly a borrowing from Latin. Partly a borrowing from Greek. Etymons: Latin energia; Greek ἐνέργεια.
< post-classical Latin energia
) (in rhetoric) vigour of style (2nd or 3rd cent.), type of metaphor (4th cent.), power, strength (4th cent.), activity, operation, efficacy (4th cent.; from 12th cent. in British sources), actuality (5th or 6th cent.; from c
1200 in British sources), and its etymon ancient Greek ἐνέργεια
activity, operation, (in rhetoric) type of metaphor, (in philosophy) actuality, in Hellenistic Greek also (of drugs) efficacy < ἐνεργής
active, effective ( < ἐν-
work: see ) + -ια
Compare Middle French energie
) efficacy (c
1500), force of expression (1602 in the passage translated in quot. , or earlier), vigour, intensity (1790), Spanish energía
(beginning of the 17th cent.), Portuguese energía
, Italian energia
(both late 16th cent.).
ultimately reflect ancient Greek ἐνέργεια
as used by Aristotle, whereas sense
corresponds to that of ancient Greek δύναμις
Aristotle uses ancient Greek ἐνέργεια
in rhetoric ( Rhetoric
3. 11. 2) for a species of metaphor which calls up a mental picture of something in action. Post-classical Latin energia
has both this sense and the sense ‘vigour of style’, which gives rise to sense . In modern use it merges into sense .
introduced by Robert Hunt ( Res. Light iii.
ii. 269) and ultimately modelled by him on ancient Greek ἐνεργῆμα
action, activity, operation.
in the specific use with reference to the work of Carl Jung, after German psychische Energie
(1917 or earlier in Jung; already a
1805 in Schiller, although he uses it in a broader sense).
†b. As a quality of work or action: the capacity to produce an effect; efficacy, potency. Obsolete.
1668 R. Stedman sig. a2v
One plain truth..will be of more advantage,..than multitudes of notions, that lie only floating in the head, and do not descend with energy, upon the conscience.
1670 W. Simpson 76
It is most what from the weight of that Water pressing upon those Emunctories, which chiefly gives energy to its Operation.
1712 G. Smalridge
Beg the Blessed Jesus..to give an Energy to their Imperfect Prayers.
1726 E. Fenton in Pope et al. tr. Homer V. xx. 226
Blows have more energy than airy words.
1788 H. Fuseli tr. J. C. Lavater 12
Wishes run over in loquacious impotence, will presses on with laconic energy.
†c. As a quality of an event: the capacity to effectively make an impression or convey a message; impressiveness. Obsolete. rare.
1764 T. Harmer ii. 7
This thunder..added considerably to the energy of this event [sc. Saul's inauguration].
b. A form or instance of activity or operation, esp. one which occurs in nature; an action. Obsolete.
1626 Bacon §938
Visibles, and Audibles,..are not Effectiue of any Thing; Nor leaue no Worke behinde them; But are Energies meerely; For their Working vpon Mirrours, and Places of Eccho, doth not alter any Thing in those Bodies; But it is the same Action with the Originall, onely Repercussed.
1661 J. Glanvill x. 91
Within the Flame,..the more violent motion of the particles..begets in us a stronger sense [of heat]. Now if this motive Energie, the Instrument of this active Element [sc. Fire], must be called Heat..I contend not.
1712 II. 607/2
This stupendous Effect he contents himself to ascribe to the Energy of Percussion.
1744 J. Harris i. 33
Call every Production, the Parts of which exist successively..a Motion or an Energy—Thus a Tune and a Dance are Energies.
Nature unquestionably abounds with numberless unthought-of energies, and modes of working.
1833 I. Taylor ii. 42
The transition of the passions from momentary energies to settled dispositions.
c. Grammar. The action denoted by a verb; (also) a verb which denotes an action. Cf. . Obsolete.This term was introduced by James Harris; cf. quots. , .
1751 J. Harris i. ix. 173
All Verbs, that are strictly so called, denote Energies.
1751 J. Harris i. ix. 175
Brutus loved Portia.—Here Brutus is the Energizer; loved, the Energy, and Portia, the Subject.
1831 S. Alexander
The infinitive ambulare, to walk, means simply, that energy, and nothing more.
1844 N. F. Moore
(Columbia Coll., N.Y.)
The energy is called active or passive, according as the energizer or the object leads the sentence.
1873 W. V. Yates ii. 34
The Voice of a verb is the form which the verb takes to express whether the agent or the object of the energy signified is the subject of the sentence.
b. The collective physical and mental powers or efforts of a person, group, or other entity.
1784 W. Godwin II. v. 81
All the energies of her soul had been exerted to encounter the trials and surmount the difficulties which she felt to be unavoidable.
1804 W. L. Bowles i. 18
From sleep The sullen energies of man rouse up, As of a slumb'ring giant.
1854 6 No. 1. 4/1
The liberal man occupies his thoughts, and exerts his energies, and devotes his time on behalf of the poor.
1865 Dickens II. iii. iv. 24
Bella and the fowls, by the united energies of two horses, two men, four wheels, and a plum-pudding carriage dog.., were deposited at the door.
1908 Aug. 69/1
Another valuable outlet for its energies is the management of a Works Kitchen.
1928 A. Huxley xxvi. 444
Shall I ever have the strength of mind to..devote my energies to the more serious and difficult task of living integrally?
1984 4 Mar. (Book World section) 12/1
The damn machines [sc. computers] begin to fascinate, take increasingly more of your free time and money, absorb all your energies.
2017 May 84/4
Eventually he relinquished his winemaking duties to devote his energies to the vineyard's tractor.
b. As a personal quality or resource: a capacity for or tendency towards (sustained) exertion or effort; mental, physical, or emotional strength and vitality; vigour; dynamism.
1793 W. Godwin I. iii. vii. 180
Among the ancients what could be better assorted than a pure democracy to the intellectual acuteness and impetuous energy of the Athenians?
1800 E. Hamilton I. x. 52
If I had energy sufficient to dare to meet him in the arbour at the bottom of the garden.., he would acknowledge his error, and adore me.
1841 R. W. Emerson Prudence in 1st Ser.
The poet admires the man of energy and tactics.
1855 Macaulay III. xvi. 726
He took his measures with his usual energy and dexterity.
1892 27 May 296/2
Dr. Storer..used little of his energy in searching for generalizations.
1918 Jan. 67/2
Some individuals appear to lack energy, when, as a fact, they are full of energy which is merely dormant.
1937 M. Allingham xvii. 217
Her energy, her constant nattering at one.
1976 26 Nov. 6/4
Unless people are prepared to devote time and energy to that end there can only be a third world war.
1998 P. Turnbull
If you're tired you're less strong, you don't have the energy to say no to people.
11 Nov. (State & Regional News section)
‘I absolutely love it,’ she said... ‘I wake up full of energy and ready to go.’
6. a. Physics
(b) As a count noun: a particular quantity of this capacity or property possessed by a given body or system, or required for a given process to take place.
1802 T. Young I. 19
The velocities will be C+B and C-A respectively, and the joint energies will be A.(C+B)2+B.(C-A)2.
1882 July 307/1
To lift a weight of two pounds, we must furnish from our muscles an energy twice as great—that is to say, two foot-pounds.
1947 72 1114/1
At sufficiently high energies the nucleus begins to be transparent to the bombarding particles.
1994 11 Feb. 733/1
Each of these fragments, on impact with Jupiter, will generate a fireball with an energy equivalent to 100 million megatons of TNT.
2012 S. Carroll iv. 68
The pride of Fermilab was the Tevatron, a massive machine that collided protons and antiprotons together at energies of 2,000 GeV.
(c) With modifying word indicating the nature, form, or source of this capacity or property.actual energy, dark energy, electromagnetic energy, heat energy, kinetic energy, radiant energy, rest energy, etc.: see the first element. See also , , , etc.
1852 W. Thomson in 4th Ser. 4 304
Dissipation of Mechanical Energy.
1893 8 Sept. 137/1
A chemical transformation implies greater intensity of chemical energy in the reacting bodies than in the reaction products.
1922 T. M. Lowry xxii. 255
Since a battery can only be run in the direction of its electromotive force, the electrical energy, E, set free in a chemical change must always be positive.
1962 F. D. Shields in D. Williams viii. 689
Since the molecular energy is transferred by collision, a reduction in gas pressure retards the flow of energy.
2011 3 Sept. 47/2
Absolute zero, the temperature at which matter has no thermal energy.
†b. Physics. A proposed name for: momentum. Obsolete. rare.
1808 Apr. 130
The power of Percussion or of a body in motion, when we speak relatively to the effect produced by that power in a given time (which is proportional to the quantity of matter multiplied into the velocity)..might therefore be called Energy.
†c. In form energia. The capacity of light to cause chemical change; = . Obsolete.This term was coined by Robert Hunt (cf. quot. ), who soon abandoned it in favour of actinism.
1844 R. Hunt iii. ii. 270
Energia, that power [of solar rays] which effects all the changes, whether chemical or molecular, which are constantly in progress.
1855 J. Scoffern in 93
That peculiar associate of light which has been termed by different chemists actinism, tithonism, and energia.
1873 June 489/1
Shut out the heat [of the sunbeam] and we shut out the energia as well.
d. Science Fiction. Energy (sense ) portrayed as something which can be produced in a particular form, such as a projectile, beam, or wave, and transferred (typically with destructive effect) to a body upon contact.
1903 G. C. Griffith xxix. 286
All-destroying, flowed the terrible energy of the disintegrator on top of the tower.
1946 ‘R. Rocklynne’ in June 84/1
Gull adjusted the valves [of his flame pistol]..and it settled down to an inch-thick sword of flaming, violet-blue energy.
1968 S. E. Whitfield in S. E. Whitfield & G. Roddenberry ii. ii. 193
Phaser beams can be fired steadily, in one long burst, or in intermittent ‘squirts’ or ‘phased’ energy.
24 Oct. 50
At the press of a button, the machine generates a bright beam of energy, similar to a Star Wars lightsaber.
† energy of growth n.
[originally after German Wachsthumsenergie (1874 in the passage translated in quot. ; now Wachstumsenergie)]
Botany Obsolete the potential for growth in a given segment of a stem or shoot; (also) the rapidity with which a given segment of a stem or shoot grows, and which is a factor in determining its eventual length.
1875 A. W. Bennett & W. T. T. Dyer tr. J. von Sachs iii. iv. 741
If the power of any particular zone to attain a definite length is called its Energy of Growth [Ger. Wachsthumsenergie], then a zone which..reaches a length of 10 mm. would have a smaller energy than one which continues to grow until it has reached a length of 100 mm.
1900 J. Percival xx. 241
The vigour or energy of growth of a stem or other member varies during the grand period: at one stage of the development of the complete stem the growing part either grows more rapidly or continues its growth longer than at another stage.
1904 H. M. Ward I. i. ix. 73
Since the length of the internode is an expression of the rapidity and energy of growth during the growing season, the two are correlated.
energy of position n. Physics energy which a body or substance possesses by virtue of its position relative to other bodies or within a field; cf.
1868 D. D. Heath in 8 65
We may conceive the whole system as undergoing simultaneously two changes,..and attribute them to two energies—one of motion, or as it is coming to be called, kinetic energy,—the other which, for the moment, we will term energy of position.
1934 J. A. Thomson & E. J. Holmyard II. 1033
We see the same thing when the kinetic energy of a rush of water is used by a hydraulic machine to raise a heavy weight to a height, where it has energy of position, or potential energy.
1966 R. S. Heinlein
But Luna also has energy of position; she sits at top of gravity well eleven kilometres per second deep and kept from falling in by curb only two and a half km/s high.
B. 367 60/2
An object held in a person's hand has potential energy—energy of position—which converts to kinetic energy—the energy of motion—if the actor lets it fall to the ground.
, objective, and instrumental (chiefly in senses , , ).
a. Objective with participial adjectives, verbal nouns, and agent nouns, as energy booster, energy-boosting, energy-carrier, energy-carrying, energy-consuming, energy-draining, energy-giving, energy producer, energy-producing, energy-sapping, energy-saving.
1830 2nd Ser. 25 65
The slow, tedious, wearing, energy-consuming, punishment of solitary confinement.
1839 11 Apr.
We have seen him maintain his stand—almost the very soul and energy-giving agent of our great trading people.
1850 T. D. Mitchell 570
The stamina [will] cease to have an energy-imparting power.
1861 R. P. Ritchie in 9 Mar. 243/2
The determination to conduct themselves in the pure cause is wanting, and in this there is evidence of the pernicious energy-sapping cause [i.e. masturbation].
1876 7 Sept. 393/1
The chief form of energy in the organic kingdom is that resulting from the oxidation of carbon, chiefly characteristic of animals, while plants secrete the energy-producing material.
1879 21 Feb. 89/2
Each part of this lovely variegated band is formed by energy carrying waves.
1882 28 Dec. 2/2
Plum-pudding, it has been shown, is a splendid energy-producer.
1883 9 Mar. 149/1
Let every one try to get in his head that every ray is an energy-carrier, and capable of doing some kind of work.
1889 W. S. Woodbridge 18
Hard work and energy-draining diversion are characteristic of the American people.
1893 23 Oct.
An energy saving appliance was noticed in an open carriage..recently... It was an open-faced watch set in the floor of the carriage so that the occupant could see the time of day by merely glancing down.
1895 7 Mar.
The Amish..continue to thresh their grain by tramping it out with their well fed horses rather than use the rapid, economical, energy conserving, but ungodly separator.
1905 6 Jan. 8/2
No one can see far into the future, but we all easily see the dawn of a new era of energy saving.
1933 8 Sept. 20/2
Charts..of..familiar foods, each one marked to indicate its importance as a source of minerals and vitamins, or muscle building and energy boosting materials.
1938 24 Apr. iv. 7/5
There are scrapers..with a solid steel handle, [and] others with a pistol grip which is very energy saving.
1940 9 Oct. 13/6
Burkhardt's beer..is just what I need to top off a hard, hot day of welding. It's the best energy-booster I've ever found.
1940 19 40
Selling more milk for health protection and energy boosting will aid the national defense program.
1941 J. S. Huxley iii. iv. 96
The fertilizing, energy-giving belt of cyclonic weather.
1952 11 May 8/2
It is time-consuming and energy-consuming to be an invalid.
1958 7 May 9/3
Campaigning is costly today. It is time-consuming. It is energy-sapping—and politically it is deadly.
1963 36 158/2
A..metabolism that requires less O₂ at a given temperature..would result in great energy savings for the winter.
1976 J. Updike in 11 Dec. 14/7
The older I got I'd say I'm more monogamous... Monogamy is very energy-conserving.
(U.S. National Res. Council: Assembly Life Sci.)
The tremendous cost of air-pollution control equipment for energy-producing plants.
1980 23 May v. 13/1
1 million jobs were created in 1979 because businesses have found it economical to substitute labor for energy-draining machinery.
1990 Apr. 222/2
Market forces can encourage energy saving..but they don't reflect the cost of environmental damage.
26 Mar. 35
Coenzyme Q10 is an important antioxidant and an energy-carrying enzyme that is found in every cell of the body.
b. attributive, as energy boost, energy consumption, energy cost, energy expenditure, energy loss, energy production, energy resource, energy source, energy supply, energy transfer, energy unit, energy usage, energy use, energy value, etc.Attributive use specifically with reference to electricity and fuel is treated at .
1872 J. D. Everett III. lii. 756
The energy-value of a current, for each unit of time that it lasts, is the product of the current by the electromotive force producing it.
1882 27 Oct. 183/2
1 M.G.S. energy-unit equals 10,000 G.C.S. energy-units.
1883 H. N. Martin viii. 103
Hitherto we have only considered the energy-supply of the body from one side; we have regarded it as dependent on the constant supply of things which can be oxidized.
1885 14 215
I mean those giving a purely physical E.M.F., produced we know not quite how, whose energy-source is not chemical but thermal.
1891 10 July 710/1
If I want to reduce the capital outlay on the [power] line, I must work at high voltage, and with a large energy loss.
1892 27 Jan. 91/2
This phenomenon of hysteresis and..the energy consumption caused thereby.
1892 6 Feb. 304/1
We may also observe in them [sc. bacteria] some of the highest forms of specialisation of function and energy production.
1899 ‘Y. Vedra’ 97
There is generally much determination..to use..short-paths in matters of energy-use or muscular exertion.
1902 W. R. B. Gibson in H. Sturt iii. 152
What guides the physicist in forming his energy-equations is not the idea of the constancy of energy within the universe, but that of the balance of energy about any given change as fulcrum.
1910 28 165
The part which electricity is destined to play in the conservation of our energy resources is demonstrated clearly by what it already has accomplished.
1915 49 378
From the oxygen consumption of the heart we can calculate its total energy usage.
1925 30 Aug. iv. 3/1
‘What will you have—energy tablets?’ ‘No today I think I will try a little concentrated repose.’
1937 10 Aug. 5/5
Dr. Pepper has a bracing tang... A treat in taste pleasure..and a temporary energy boost as well.
1942 8 May 486/2
The energy cost of moving the body is directly proportional to W1.0.
1954 D. J. Hughes i. 2
The neutrons..reach thermal equilibrium with the moderating material, in which state energy gains are as frequent as energy loss.
1960 E. N. Willmer ix. 151
Many flagellates..depend for their energy supplies on the extraction of materials dissolved in the fluid in which they are swimming.
1966 R. A. MacGowan & F. I. Ordway III 347
With energy resources we can but dimly perceive on the far distant technological horizon, only fractions of the velocity of light are likely to be achieved.
1969 137 402
This is attributed to energy transfer from the luminescent system to a green fluorescent protein associated with the photogenic granules.
1975 25 June a13/3
The tests will involve such energy usages as illumination, air conditioning, and hot water.
1978 J. Updike
[She moved] more electrically, twitchily, like a modern woman connected to a variety of energy-sources.
1984 M. W. Stanier et al. i. 9
The total energy intake of an animal from its food..may result in storage if not precisely balanced by energy output.
1993 J. A. Kay iv. ix. 129
Concerned by the future of the oil market after the 1973 Arab–Israeli war, several oil companies redefined their business as energy supply, and diversified into coal.
2002 E. Keen iv. 52
Giving up is often rewarded by a tremendous relief—relief from the struggle, the energy drain, and the frustration of failure.
2014 23 Oct. f8/2
When it comes to energy expenditure..the brain has a hard time distinguishing between momentous and banal choices.
c. Instrumental, with the sense ‘with or by means of energy; as regards energy; with a view towards (conserving) energy’, as energy-driven, energy-filled, energy-intensive, energy-laden, energy-oriented, etc.
1893 Sept. 343
The heart had ceased to beat for want of the proper supply of energy-laden material.
1908 25 Mar. 143/1
Energy-filled environs of St. Louis.
1914 27 Dec. 16/4
The American man..has an energy-driven curiosity.
1950 S. H. Schurr & J. Marschak xiii. 222
Here an energy-intensive process based on electricity would be substituted for a process using only small amounts of energy per ton.
1971 Oct. 20/2
Our contemporary technological society is energy based.
1988 J. Elkington & J. Hailes
Over the past 25 years..we have made increasing use of the two most energy-intensive forms of travel. These are the private car and air travel.
1993 W. LaFeber in T. J. McCormick & W. LaFeber 3
An arresting presence: a commanding 6′4″ frame, rapid speech, pointed words, and an energy-charged style.
2006 A. Steffen et al.
With increasing urban density and rapidly depleting resources, massive, energy-intensive homes are not only becoming an unquestionably bad idea, but they are in many places simply not possible.
24 Oct. (Report on Business Mag.) b4
In 2006, it [sc. the bank] launched a funding initiative for energy-oriented housing refurbishments and low-energy homes.
C2. attributive, with reference to the production and supply of electricity and gas and other fuels, or to government control and regulation of this, as energy customer, energy industry, energy policy, energy price, etc. Cf. sense .Compounds with a broader sense, as energy consumption, energy producer, energy use, etc., are treated at .
1907 19 Apr. 540/1
The costs of lighting per kilo-candle hour will be divided into energy charges..[and] fixed charges.
1914 52 131/2
The Berlin works..work more economically than those in Chicago... Nevertheless, the actual energy prices..are approximately the same.
1921 Jan. 27/1
The status of electric application..has exaggerated the lack of balance obtaining in the present state of development of the energy industry.
1957 26 Mar. 2/4
An energy tax..aimed at financing a considerable expansion of Sweden's power output..is to be introduced.
1975 2 Jan. 4/2
Unless there is vastly stepped up technical training.., few of the new energy workers will come from the black community.
1987 25 529
A coherent energy policy cannot be successful without taking into account the available resources.
1995 7 Apr. 8/4
Energy supply businesses have traditionally..had established business relationships with energy customers.
2013 A. B. Badiru & S. O. Osisanya ii. 27
The need to develop practical, efficient, and cost-effective energy infrastructure has never been more urgent.
, with reference to the concept (especially in certain Eastern religions, New Age philosophy or culture, etc.) of a spiritual or ethereal force held to be present in all living things (see sense ).
a. Designating sites of such energy within the body, as energy centre , energy channel, etc.
1938 A. M. Uhler xvii. 203
Our strength fails, not because it is used up, but because our energy channels are clogged.
1959 18 Dec. 744/4
Jung has frequently written on these energy centres or, as he calls them, foundation stones of psychic energy.
1976 C. Popenoe 67/2
It [sc. the book] reorients the body in space as a completely interrelated network of energy lines and centers of force.
1999 N. Mehta
Within Ayurveda, as in other belief systems from around the world, the body is said to contain seven energy centres.
15 Nov. (Escape section) 11
Something more serene is the spa with a range of treatments, especially the traditional Khmer massage that focuses on energy lines.
b. Alternative Medicine With reference to the direction or manipulation of such energy for a patient's benefit, in any of various treatments or therapies, as energy healing, energy work, etc.
1978 10 Aug. 4 d/4
Learn energy healing technique.
1981 24 June c2/3
Natural Healing classes... Massage, energy work, physical therapy, [etc.].
1986 24 Apr. 19/1
Reiki is an energy therapy that uses natural universal energy to balance and align the entire physical/emotional/spiritual dynamic.
1990 Nov. 106/1
Energy healer and problem solver.
1997 B. Rowlands 125
Colour therapists..describe colour therapy as ‘energy medicine’.
25 July 19
On this..menu of registered providers you will find energy healing and ‘soul counselling’.
energy audit n. an assessment of energy provision, consumption, and efficiency, esp. within a business or building; cf. .
1936 C. Croneis & W. C. Krumbein Contents p. xv
[Chapter] 4. Energy audit, in which we examine the Earth's sources of energy, and follow this energy through the economy of our terrestrial globe.
1963 26 Nov. 11/2
The average annual saving brought about by a fuel efficiency survey, or ‘energy audit’, is between five and ten times the cost of the survey.
1983 Sept. 417/3
To save you doing the sums yourself to work out what insulation will prove worthwhile, you could consider getting an energy audit.
2000 4 Nov. d2/1
They're lobbying for the Endangered Species Act, conducting energy audits and educating others about global climate change.
energy band n. Physics a set of energy levels, forming a range with no significant gaps, which electrons in a given solid can occupy.
[1930 P. M. Morse in 35 1311
Bands of allowed energies which may or may not be separated from their neighbors by bands of forbidden energies.]
1931 A. H. Wilson in A. 134 279
In this case the main function of the impurities is to provide electrons for the upper unoccupied energy bands of the crystal.
1984 D. C. Giancoli xli. 813
The energy bands in semiconductors play an important role for transistors and diodes.
2012 P. Hertel iv. 170
With increasing temperature, more and more electrons can jump from the lower almost filled energy band to the higher almost empty energy band.
energy bar n. orig. U.S. a block of high-calorie food, typically similar in size and shape to a chocolate bar, which is regarded or marketed as a convenient source of energy; esp. such a product that is manufactured commercially and sold individually wrapped.
1917 25 Aug. 16/5
Reed's chocolate energy bar, appetizing, satisfying, a lunch in itself.
1964 16 July 37/4
Jim Bouton reached into his locker..and pulled forth a box containing four chocolate-covered energy bars.
23 June ii. 7
If you exercise for more than 90 minutes, a snack will enhance your endurance... The commercial energy bars get the job done.
2008 P. Galbreath ix. 121
They pooled the assets in their backpacks: six energy bars, two bags of granola, and several bottles of water.
energy bill n.
(a) a bill for payment for electricity, gas, etc., supplied;
(b) (chiefly with capital initials) a legislative bill concerned with the supply or use of energy, fuel, etc.
1911 Apr. 143/1
The incentive to conversion [to low-voltage metallic filament lamps] being actually a substantial reduction in the energy bill.
1954 23 July 1/8
Democratic Senator James Eastland..veered from the Energy Bill and discussed such matters as cotton.
1978 23 Apr. 16/1
Does it all mean that Congress ought not pass the languishing energy bill?
1999 20 Apr. 42/2
These projects include policy development for the new Energy Bill currently in preparation.
2014 A. Foster 17
Even with the best insulating you can find, I can't imagine what it will do to our energy bills.
energy budget n.
(a) the amount of energy available for use in a given context; a plan for how this energy is to be allocated;
(b) Biology an estimate of the amounts of energy obtained and expended by an organism or ecosystem.
1913 IX. 2391
Energy-Budgets for Homes... It is just as necessary to have budgets of energy and time for household work as to have budgets for money spending.
1926 26 5
The work of the animal physiologists, and the studies of non-green plants have shown that an energy budget can be calculated from the heat equivalents of food substances consumed.
13 Mar. f5
To be able to run from a battery, manufacturers have had to get power consumption of all the components to fit into a finite energy budget.
1997 G. S. Helfman et al. v. 66/2
Energy budgets can aid in understanding the energy intake and utilization of an individual.
2017 22 Apr. 36/3
Most of us are spending 20 per cent of our basic energy budget taking care of muscle mass.
energy change n. a change in the amount or type of energy possessed by a body or system before and after a chemical reaction, change of state, or other physical process.
1878 A. S. Herschel in 14 Feb. 303/1
The sum of the energy changes between the two given points is independent of the course or lapse of time in which the final point is reached.
1964 L. H. Van Vlack
The energy change which is of importance in a chemical reaction is the decrease in free energy of the reaction.
2014 111 15070/1
This energy change represents only a small contribution to the overall catalytic effect.
energy company n. a commercial company that produces electricity, gas, or a similar fuel.
1910 20 Oct. 940/2
Persons in the communities served are now paying more for the service of the energy companies.
1967 26 July b3/2
An Imperial Oil spokesman said: ‘We are interested in uranium because we are an energy company and uranium is part of the energy picture.’
2011 P. Vaze & S. Tindale vii. 139
Many energy companies also offer reductions to those paying by direct debit, or to those buying gas and electricity as a bundle.
energy conservation n.
(a) Physics = ;
(b) the practice of conserving energy by eliminating wasteful use, using energy more efficiently, and reducing total use.
1878 21 Feb. 321/2
The principle of energy conservation here laid down by Newton.
1910 Nov. 79/3
In the body forms with which she invests her living organisms, nature displays a skill in energy conservation which is beyond compare.
1955 W. Heisenberg in W. Pauli 13
Bothe and Geiger showed experimentally by means of the Compton effect that the energy conservation law is valid for individual processes also.
1984 E. P. DeGarmo et al.
Recent advances in blast furnace technology tend to center on..energy conservation.
2004 B. Greene xii. 343
An anomaly is a pernicious quantum effect that spells doom for a theory by implying that it violates certain sacred principles, such as energy conservation.
10 Oct. 1 a
In the absence of stricter federal regulations curbing greenhouse gas emissions, many states have issued their own mandates promoting energy conservation.
energy crisis n. a severe shortage of one or more energy-producing resources, esp. petroleum; (also) a period characterized by such a shortage, in which the price of energy is high and power outages may occur.
1953 27 Aug. 11/1
While the energy crisis draws nearer, mankind is letting trillions of kilowatt-hours go to waste.
1971 10 Jan. f8/1
Although some progress has been made in dealing with the U.S. ‘energy crisis’, the likelihood of..blackouts in the coming year is not being ruled out.
2014 24 Aug. in1
Those were the dark days of a global energy crisis.
energy crop n.
(a) a crop grown for use as food, regarded as a source of food energy; (now rare);
(b) a crop grown for use in the generation of energy by combustion, or for the production of fuels such as bioethanol.
1918 Mar. 40/1
Ninety per cent of all the energy crop that is captured from the sun is in the form of rough stuff; only 10 per cent is fine enough in the form of grains of various kinds for the food of man.
1949 22 July 81/2
The resources of the tropics are simply not such as to make the regions capable of assuming a major position in the production of the energy crops.
1975 15 Aug. 539/3
In addition to the low efficiency of photosynthetic conversion, if energy crops were produced on a large scale they could compete with food and fiber crops for arable land and water.
1995 21 July 7/4
Bavaria has agreed to subsidise 30% of the buying price for a locally designed energy crop harvester which cuts, chops, pellets and dries various crops for fuel.
It would plant an energy crop known as Jatropha and convert the extracted oil from its seeds to biodiesel.
energy crunch n. a severe shortage of one or more energy-producing resources; =
1970 19 Oct.
‘We are in a tight energy crunch’, said Murray.
1978 4 June 110
The real meaning of the energy crunch.
2001 18 June 9/2
California's energy crunch drove wholesale prices up to $800 a megawatt-hour.
(a) (of food) that contains a relatively large quantity of energy per unit mass; high-calorie;
(b) (of fuels and batteries) that store a relatively large amount of energy per unit mass or volume.
1962 41 1061/1
The cause of reduced egg production in hens fed high levels of fat is associated with over-consumption of the energy-dense fat diet and resultant weight gains and obesity.
The balancing of even these more energy-dense silver-zinc systems requires buoyancy from other pressure-proof subsystems or from flotation material.
1993 10 Apr. 237/2
Children are born liking sweets..but they quickly learn to also enjoy ‘energy-dense’ foods—generally, those high in fat.
2016 8 Oct. 28/2
Hydrogen..is energy-dense—you could drive the 600-odd kilometres from London to Edinburgh..on a single tank.
energy density n. Physics and Engineering
(a) the quantity of energy per unit volume stored in a given material or object, or present in a given space (also called volume (or volumetric) energy density);
(b) the quantity of energy per unit mass (or weight) stored in a given material or object (also called gravimetric energy density or specific energy; cf. ).Frequently used to express the efficiency (by volume or weight) of a fuel as a source of energy, or of a battery, flywheel, etc., as a device for storing energy. When relativistic effects are taken into account, energy density includes energy in the form of matter.
1896 3 472
Maxwell does not say anything about the energy density according to Ampere's theory of elementary current magnets.
1933 A. W. Barton xv. 352
The number of ergs of radiation in 1 c.c. of [enclosure] A..is called the energy density of the radiation in the enclosure.
1973 Jan. 70/2
Recently, advances in energy storage in flywheels have been reported by Weatherbee and Rabenhorst, who anticipate storage of 30 W hrs/lb, an energy density that would make them competitive with present day storage batteries.
1992 Energy Conservation Devel. 50 in (102nd Congr., 2nd Sess.: Senate Hearing 637)
The energy density of gasoline is more than 350 times that of a lead acid battery system per kilogram of weight.
2011 B. E. Cox & J. R. Forshaw xi. 22
Such a large and negative energy density in every square metre of empty space should..generate a devastating expansion of the Universe.
energy-dispersive adj. designating an instrument which is able to detect and measure the energy spectrum of X-rays emitted by a sample; (also) designating techniques in which the detection and measurement of an X-ray energy spectrum is used to analyse the composition of a sample.Such techniques rely upon the characteristic relationship between the composition of a material and the energy spectrum of the X-rays it emits when stimulated by a given source of excitation, such as when bombarded by high-energy electrons in a scanning electron microscope.Cf. quot. , in which energy-dispersion is used attributively in the same sense.
[1968 2 Feb. 528
Solid-state energy-dispersion spectrometer for electron-microprobe X-ray analysis.]
1970 7 Aug. 519
As you read this ad, 37 per cent of all U3 owners have added our energy dispersive x-ray analysers.
1990 D. Ackerman iv. 204
Using EDAX (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy), they showered a fragment of a cello with high-energy electrons, which allowed them to analyze the wood's ingredients.
2001 R. W. Cahn vi. 228
An ‘energy-dispersive’ analyser..uses a scintillation detector with an electronic circuit to determine the quantum energy of the signal.
2006 13 Mar. 89/1
In 2003, researchers re-tested surviving metal samples with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry.
energy drink n. orig. U.S. any of various types of drink which are regarded or marketed as a source of energy; (now) esp. a soft drink containing a high percentage of sugar, or caffeine or another stimulant, typically consumed when participating in sports or as a means of overcoming tiredness; cf. .
1904 3 Mar. 6/6
Vimalt. The great health tonic... An energy drink.
1928 17 Feb. 4
Milk is the energy drink for youngsters.
1985 2 June f12/3
‘Energy’ drinks such as Quaker Oats's Gatorade and Coca-Cola's MAX.
2014 K. E. McConnell et al. ix. 161
Despite their name, energy drinks provide little usable energy for the body.
energy efficiency n.
(a) Science and Engineering the efficiency with which a machine, device, or process utilizes the energy it takes in; spec. the ratio of the quantity of useful work performed or energy produced relative to the quantity of energy taken in or expended;
(b) the economical use of energy, esp. electricity or fuel.
1888 17 423
As far as I know, the actual energy efficiency has not been shown to be higher than about 60 per cent.
The energy efficiency..represents the ratio of the energy delivered by the battery to the energy expended in charging it.
1972 H. Perry 2
The principal theme of this report is that energy conservation and energy efficiency are important issues.
1986 Aug. 33/1
Energy efficiency is not..a subject on which the British can talk with much authority.
2011 S. Coyle iii. 78
Architects and..engineers collaborate to maximize energy efficiency in heating and cooling.
energy-efficient adj. orig. U.S. that makes economical use of energy, esp. electricity or fuel; that facilitates or is conducive to an economical use of energy.
1970 2 Oct. 17/1
We need better utilization of all energy resources—for example, a transit system more energy-efficient than the present individual automobile.
1984 Mar. 3 a
These homes are equipped with..energy-efficient insulation.
31 July (Environment section)
Shaw..has a top-rated energy-efficient fridge and has triple glazing on his windows.
energy exchange n. Science the transfer or exchange of energy from one body or system to another; (as a count noun) an instance of this.Cf. quot. , in which an earlier compound of heat-energy denotes an exchange of energy in the form of heat.
[1878 A. S. Herschel in 9 May 40/1
The..heat-tension of the gas by which its heat-energy exchanges are secured.]
1884 A. S. Herschel in 26 Dec. 479/1
Whether..the energy exchanges that occur are perfect and reversible, or take place with friction.
1934 H. E. White vi. 92
If in collision the energy exchange between..an electron and atom is all energy of translation.
2013 125 1350/2
These systems interact, allowing energy exchange between the two, which reduces the statistical fluctuation.
energy field n.
[compare German Energiefeld (1906 or earlier)]
(a) Physics a field () regarded as a source of energy for bodies interacting with it (now rare);
(b) a supposed aura or emanation of ethereal or spiritual forces (cf. sense , ).
1895 13 402
It has not been found possible to map the energy field in this manner for three or more particles.
1920 30 411
The first deduction should be that when two bodies come into the same energy-field, that is, when they attract each other, kinetic energy aroused in each is equal.
1941 R. A. Heinlein in Jan. 15/2
You see, there are three types of energy fields known to exist in space; electric, magnetic, and gravitic or gravitational.
1971 B. Sidran v. 148
The music created an ‘energy field’ that made the drummer feel he was hovering ‘six inches off the floor’.
1996 27 Mar. 86/2
They were built in accordance with the laws of feng shui, which keeps the structures in harmony with the earth's energy fields.
2015 15 Oct. 295/1
I don't buy into the pseudoscientific claims of reiki and spiritual healers. There is no evidence that they can tap into and manipulate human ‘energy fields’ to clear blockages and heal the body.
1970 28 Dec. a2/4
Universities often control a bigger percentage of the votes cast at the annual meetings of some energy firms than..2.73%.
1993 1 Mar. 4
Russian energy firms are..starting commercial production of natural gas in eastern Siberia's Irkutsk province.
2014 M. L. Robinson 100
Moving beyond petroleum was essential for an energy firm like BP as it competes in the twenty-first century.
energy gel n. (a packet or portion of) high-carbohydrate gel designed to boost energy levels when consumed during sporting activity or other strenuous exercise.Energy gels typically contain high levels of sugars and maltodextrins (and sometimes also electrolytes, caffeine, etc.) and are usually sold in individually packaged servings.
1995 May 96/2
Energy gels..come closer to meeting the promise of a high-octane athletic fuel, particularly during extended efforts.
2005 28 Sept. a23/5
Consume 30 to 60 grams of carbohydrate per hour of running, using a combination of sports drinks, energy gels.., energy bars, fruit, or gummi candy.
2014 Oct. 57/1
An energy gel had burst in Dumoulin's pocket, leaving a pinkish stain on his jersey and shorts.
energy gun n. orig. and chiefly Science Fiction a device which emits a (destructive) beam or pulse of energy or high-energy particles.
1917 Apr. 99/2
In ‘The Intrigue’, a Pallas picture.., soldiers meet their death as a result of a terrific electrical discharge from a huge energy gun, a purely imaginary contrivance.
1931 7 Aug. 13/5
Scientists build new energy gun... Its projectiles are a stream, or beam, of protons..to shoot at heavy atoms to break them down.
1952 K. F. Crossen in Dec. 36/2
One of the Caphian ships appeared and settled to the ground just out of the range of an energy gun.
energy market n. the commercial market for energy supply.
1920 20 Mar. 659/1
Subtracting from these computed state totals for 1930 the estimated state totals of 1920 gives the increase in generator rating..required between 1920 and 1930 to supply the increased energy market.
Stability in today's energy markets may be a humbler goal than the efficient allocation of energy resources over the long run.
2012 House of Commons Energy & Climate Change Comm.: Consumer Engagem. with Energy Markets: 5th Rep. II. 120 in (H.C. 554–II)
Domestic consumers..do not feel strongly about the energy market, and despite being aware of their right to switch.., they do not do so.
energy minister n. a government minister responsible for the oversight of energy supply.
1959 1 July 5/4
Elliot Lake..Chamber of Commerce petitioned the Energy Minister..to locate the proposed..power station near the Uranium town.
1980 10 Oct. 1/5
Energy ministers from major Western nations..have been working together..to avert chaos in the oil market.
2006 T. James & P. C. Fusaro vi. 123
The Russia-Ukraine gas-supply dispute in the winter of 2005 shocked EU energy ministers into action.
energy provider n. something which or someone who provides energy; spec.
(a) a substance (such as a food or fuel) which serves as a source of energy;
(b) a state, organization, etc., which produces and distributes electricity or fuel; esp. a company supplying electricity or gas to customers.
1887 17 Feb. 368/1
The bacterium lactis finds itself in a situation in which the free oxygen of the atmosphere has..become less available as an energy-provider.
1936 51 114
The use of bituminous coal as an energy provider.
1963 16 June (advertising insert in Energy section)
The state of West Virginia is ideally located to serve as energy provider for the vast metropolitan areas on the East Coast.
1976 24 Dec. 18/1
The British National Oil Corporation should be a member of the commission..as a representative of State-owned energy providers.
2003 R. W. Chadd et al. 234/3
Bananas are great energy providers.
2016 A. Olive viii. 196
Switch to green power if possible, and encourage your energy provider to obtain more energy from renewable resources.
energy regulator n. a person or thing which regulates or controls energy (in various contexts); spec.
(a) a substance or organ regarded as regulating the release or consumption of energy within the body;
(b) a device which controls the flow or use of (electrical) energy in a machine or mechanism;
(c) an official or agency responsible for the control and supervision of the energy industry or market.
1897 July 303
Many medicines must be looked upon as energy regulators only, while foods are energy producers.
1906 29 584
The circuit furnishes an electric current, of an intensity which is kept sensible constant by means of an automatic energy-regulator.
1944 18 July 16/7
We know that the thyroid is the energy regulator of the body.
1973 3 Dec. 1/1
New energy regulator: rationing possible... Simons..challenges suggestions that his impending appointment as the new federal energy czar lessen the chance of gasoline rationing.
1994 H. Fraser iii. 30/1
The kiln can be fitted with separate energy regulators controlling the elements in the top and bottom.
1999 77 2230/2
Uncoupling protein 3..has been suggested to be an important energy regulator.
2010 11 Dec. 31/1
Ofgem, the energy regulator, announced an inquiry into competition in the energy sector after profits in the industry jumped by around 40%.
energy-rich adj. that contains or yields a (relatively) large amount of energy.
1924 A. P. Mathews in E. V. Cowdry ii. 26
There is an inactive and an active form; an energy-poor and an energy-rich form [of every substance].
1952 13 125
The limited stock of abiotically formed energy-rich molecules.
1993 Jan. 33/1
Take a late-afternoon coffee—or tea—break and you're virtually programmed to dive for energy-rich pastry.
2013 A. Rutherford Creation: Future of Life i. 24 in
It is a process of carbon fixation, effectively turning carbon dioxide into organic, energy-rich products.
1974 10 Jan. 5/3
In a discussion of the world energy crisis..Britain is likely to be represented by Lord Carrington, the new Energy Secretary.
The energy secretary had just enough time to announce that the nation's [sc. Philippines] electricity crisis was almost over when the television station lost power.
2011 P. Vaze & S. Tindale iv. 43
The need to control climate change..is an open objective for most US Democrat politicians, including President Obama and Energy Secretary Chu.
energy security n.
(a) Finance (in plural) stocks, bonds, etc., issued by energy companies;
(b) the safety of energy supplies, power networks, fossil fuel reserves, etc.; the safeguarding of these, esp. by a government; frequently attributive.
1960 10 Aug. 17/3
The Energy Fund [was] founded in 1955 by Ralph Samuel..to concentrate in energy securities.
1971 25 Sept. 46/5
Mr. Lincoln said that conservation and environmental policy would make the difference ‘between success or jeopardy of our energy security as of circa 1980–1985’.
During this period of depressed stock prices for energy securities.
He seems surprisingly out of touch with recent economic thinking and U.S. environmental and energy security policy.
2008 18 Feb. (FTfm section) 12/6
The fund will invest in energy securities worldwide.
2015 P. Ekins in P. Ekins et al. iii. xxvi. 541
There is not a straightforward relationship between the energy security of a given country and its dependency on imported energy.
energy shell n. Physics each of a number of discrete sets of orbitals (visualized as concentric shells surrounding the nucleus of an atom) capable of being occupied by electrons having certain energy values; a corresponding structure within a nucleus, occupied by nucleons; = .
1925 6th Ser. 49 513
The optical spectral lines belong to transitions from a free outer orbit to a vacant place in the outmost energy shell.
1997 Dec. 51/3
The same mechanism works for filled proton and neutron energy shells in atomic nuclei and explains their magic numbers.
2008 J. McDowell i. 4
Electrons move rapidly around the nucleus in regions known as energy shells.
energy spectrum n. the range of energy values possessed by a collection of particles, vibrations, etc.; the distribution of the energies of particles, vibrations, etc., over a range of values.
1884 S. P. Langley xi. 134
Unless we could form an energy spectrum from heat of some such degree as this, and determine the maximum ordinate of its curve, we should..be unable to determine the approximate wave-length of the heat in question.
1936 N. Feather x. 153
The emission of radiation (having a discrete energy spectrum).
1970 6 Oct. 90/2
Four primary brain-wave patterns have been identified using this technique—delta, theta, alpha and beta, all contained within a total energy spectrum of about 0 to 40 cycles per second.
2004 7 Aug. 28/3
Such a detector could also test the georeactor theory by looking at the energy spectrum of antineutrinos from the core.
Energy Star n.
(also with lower-case initials)
orig. and chiefly U.S. (a proprietary name for) a programme which provides certification to buildings and consumer products which meet certain standards of energy efficiency; (also) the certification mark itself.Often (and in earliest use) attributive.
1992 19 June d11/1
The plan includes an EPA ‘energy star’ logo that can be used to market PCs that meet a new, lower standard for consuming electricity.
2007 C. E. Schumer 188
The Energy Star program..allows consumer products that meet certain efficiency standards to earn an Energy Star.
16 Jan. (Post Homes section) 2
Nine-foot ceilings, Energy Star appliances and ceramic tile backsplashes.
energy state n. Physics the physical condition or state of a body or system, characterized by the quantity of energy it possesses; spec. any of the discrete states, each characterized by a discrete quantity of energy, which a particle, atom, molecule, or other system can occupy according to quantum mechanics (cf. ).
1916 21 Apr. 568/2
A standard energy state is assumed and the change in the energy of the system may be measured by the work done on or by the system.
1955 W. Heisenberg in W. Pauli 14
Schrödinger had recognized that the wave functions were the elements of the transformation matrices for the transition from energy states to position states.
2006 J. M. Hornback
(Internat. Student ed.)
Not only are the energies of the electron orbitals quantized, but all of the energy states of a molecule are quantized.
energy supplier n. something which or someone who supplies energy; spec.
(a) a substance (such as a food or fuel) which serves as a source of energy;
(b) a country, organization, etc., which produces or distributes electricity or fuel, esp. a company supplying electricity or gas to customers.
1904 Nov. 188
There may be..some scope for Radium as an energy-supplier; for..an ounce [of radium bromide]..would drive a 50-h.-p. motor-car round the world at 30 miles an hour.
1910 22 June 17/2
‘Energy + Cost of Maintenance by a Corporation Lighting Department’ was, or might be, considerably more expensive than ‘Energy + Maintenance by the Energy Supplier.’
1968 11 258
Protein, fat and carbohydrates as energy suppliers are to a certain degree exchangeable.
1991 18 July 23/3
Australia may not be Japan's largest energy supplier for much longer.
2006 C. Delp ix. 226
Fruits, muesli bars, and also chocolate, are quick and effective energy suppliers.
2014 21 June 34/3
The UK government..has introduced obligations for energy suppliers to source a certain amount of their energy from renewable sources.
energy weapon n. orig. and chiefly Science Fiction a weapon which emits a beam or pulse of destructive energy or high-energy particles.
1941 A. E. van Vogt in July 60/1
The..display was made up of an assortment of rather curiously shaped guns..; and a glowing sign in the window stated: The finest energy weapons in the known universe.
1961 A. E. Nourse 163
The pogrom, it seemed, had been accomplished by an energy weapon which ate great, gaping holes in the sides of buildings.
1977 15 May 5/2
Recent events..have persuaded Air Force analysts that an energy weapon is nearing the test stage..at an unusual research facility..south of the city of Semipalatinsk.
2014 G. Mann viii. 101
The Dalek fired its energy weapon and the Doctor dived to the floor.., the energy beam..scorching a long, black line into the wall.
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This entry has been updated (OED Third Edition, June 2018).
In this entry:
In other dictionaries:
- My entries(1)
- energist, n.1804
- energistic, adj.1896
- energize, v.1651
- energized, adj.1827
- energizer, n.1751
- Energizer bunny, n.1991
- energizing, n.1744
- energizing, adj.1751
- energumen, n.1564
- energy, n.1545
- energy gap, n.1933
- energy level, n.1902
- energy vampire, n.1967
- enerthand, adj.
- enervate, adj.1603
- enervate, v.1565
- enervated, adj.1660
- enervating, n.a1674
- enervating, adj.1821
- enervation, n.a1575
- enervative, adj.1864
- enervator, n.1840
- enerve, adj.a1521
- enerve, v.1613
- enervity, n.1656
- enervous, adj.1677
- enest, n.
- en évidence, adv.1818
- enew, v.1486
- enface, v.1861
- en face, adv.1768
- enfaimle, v.c1475
- enfame, n.1532
- en famille, adv.1726
- enfamine, n.a1450
- enfamine, v.138.
- enfamish, v.a1400–50
- enfamishment, n.1611
- enfantement, n.1483
- enfant gâté, n.1802